Source: Appel et al. The food sources used for protein replacement mainly were vegetable-based. Participants were 30 years and older with systolic SBP and diastolic blood circulation pressure DBP which range from or mm Hg, respectively. Each diet was designed using available foods commonly.
Calorie targets were determined for every participant predicated on body size, sex, and exercise level. Participants were encouraged to maintain the same activity levels and alcohol consumption through the entire scholarly study. Of the original participants randomly assigned to at least one 1 of the 6 diet sequences, completed at least 2 feeding periods and were included in analyses: completed all 3 feeding periods and 4 participants completed 2 feeding periods only.
However, mean end-of-period weights were similar over the 3 diets. Both cystatin C and B2M are novel markers of kidney function 19 regarded as influenced less by factors affecting serum creatinine level, such as for example muscle tissue and diet.
Serum creatinine was measured from serum specimens using standardized laboratory assays also, and creatinine-based eGFR was calculated using the CKD-EPI creatinine equation. Laboratory and physical examination variables included body mass index, hypertension status, homeostasis model assessment HOMA index, high sensitivity C-reactive protein level, serum triglyceride levels, serum high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol rate, and serum low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol rate.
SBP and DBP were predicated on the common of 3 sets of blood circulation pressure baseline measurements obtained during separate screening visits at least a week apart. Serum insulin concentration, measured at baseline, was used to quantify insulin resistance. Similarly, traditional assays were used to measure total HDL and triglycerides cholesterol. LDL cholesterol levels were estimated by the Friedewald equation.
Statistical Analysis All analyses were performed using Stata, version The principal comparisons were between-diet contrasts of outcomes measured by the end of every dietary period among the 3 diets. We compared end-of-period with baseline values for eGFR and kidney markers also. Both baseline and between-diet comparisons were performed with generalized estimating equation regression, using robust variance estimation and an exchangeable working correlation.
Sensitivity analyses were performed using independent and unstructured working correlations for all generalized estimating equation analyses and random-effects linear regression. To evaluate whether changes in kidney function were independent of dietary effects on blood circulation pressure, 17 we examined the association between baseline change in change and eGFR in SBP or DBP using linear regression.
Kidney marker correlations were calculated using baseline serum samples with Pearson coefficients and Spearman coefficients and plotted with fitted linear regression curves. We also examined the distinctions between cystatin C and creatinine levels as markers of eGFR by performing sensitivity analyses of the baseline change and end-of-period comparisons using the CKD-EPI creatinine equation.
Characteristics of the analysis population at baseline are listed in Table 2. Overall, participants had a mean age of At baseline, mean cystatin C-based eGFR was At baseline, cystatin C level was correlated with B2M level highly, with Spearman correlation of 0.
In contrast, cystatin C and B2M levels weren’t correlated highly with serum creatinine level, with Spearman correlations of 0. See Fig S1 provided as online supplementary material for scatterplots with Spearman correlations between main outcome variables at baseline.